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Don't randomly patch relationship with your former of boyfriend or girlfriend

    Whether back patch relationship with the former,  On former, Although break up yet, Many folks are still reserved and recap the past, either.    Still ever will remember in the past particular, previously particular, ever sense a few confession    Especially as when haven't met like more than the former later, haven't better to choose, More easy recap previous life its either particular, Start miss the former, too.  Sense the former is still excellent and fill potential, Actually don't too horrible.    At this time, Once the former back and requests patch relation, More easily starts oscillation, Caused want for him the chance again.    When break up later, always has fantasy in the heart because her former, This common.    Although it as this, actually don't advice a randomly path relationship either, Randomly with former back relationship again.     Break-up relationships, on behalf, don't fit each other.    One man and one woman couple, They to be lover, Late

美國為什麼把外交部稱為國務卿,能管國內事務嗎?

 在世界各國政壇,非常有趣的現像是,美國沒有外交部和外交部長,美國的外交事務,交給了美國的國務院和國務卿。

有朋友問了,國務院不是應該是總覽全國政務,首長為總理,相當於宰相了嗎?為什麼在美國是這樣子的?


這樣問的同學,很明顯對世界各國的政體不太了解。

當今世界的政體,主要分為共和製和君主制。君主制包含了沙特這樣的二元君主制,國王有實權,也包含了英國日本這樣的君主立憲制,君主就是樣子貨。共和製則是分為總統制、議會制和半總統制三種。


總統制,也叫三權分立制,總統由選民選舉產生,與議會無關。總統產生後,自己任命總統府各種政務官。美國、巴西就是典型的總統制,三權分立制度。


議會制,也叫責任內閣制,總統是樣子貨不管事,總理則是議會選舉產生的真正老大。這種制度主要在德國、印度、以色列實行,與日本英國的君主立憲制非常相似。實際上總理和首相是同一個詞。


半總統制,介於總統制和責任內閣制之間,典型代表是法國。法國總統全民選舉產生,主要負責軍事和外交,總理則是議會選舉產生,負責內政和民事。俄羅斯也是總理總統都有,也類似於半總統制。


這三種共和製度的特點是,總統制的總統擁有完整的行政權利,並且沒有分權給總理,分一半權利給總理,那就是半總統制,分全部權利給總理,那就是議會內閣制了。



美國的製度完全按照孟德斯鳩的《論法的精神》中的設計產生,總統獨攬行政大權,與古代的皇帝非常相似。


中國古代的皇帝,往往會設立宰相,讓某一個宰相代替自己行使大部分行政權,這一點與半總統制有些相似。朱元璋廢除宰相制度後,開始用非正式的內閣總覽朝政,實際上也是類似於總統制的情況了。


非常有趣的是,美國的總統,也一直在效法中國古代皇帝,設立了一種“內外朝”的製度。什麼是內外朝呢?漢武帝讓自己親信秘書傳達政令,形成內朝,與公開討論的外朝對應。明朝皇帝也使用了太監作為內官,也是類似於內外朝對立。在美國,各種“總統私人助理”,實際上就是內朝,各種部委,則是外朝。


不過,現在的美國政府有些奇怪,不管是內朝還是外朝,都是建制派官員,與素人總統特朗相處不來。特朗普乾脆就重用女兒和女婿,讓外戚掌權。這種局勢,與東漢時期的外戚、宦官拱衛皇帝,與文官軍閥對抗的局勢非常相似。


不同的是,我國古代主管外交的部門,主要是理藩院和鴻臚寺等部門,在中國的朝貢外交體系下,外交部門並不是主導作用的。


但是,近代以來,清朝越來越淪為“洋人的朝廷”,外交工作就變成了首要事務。最早設立的外交部門是總理各國事務衙門,簡稱總理衙門,首長不叫總理,而叫總理大臣。


總理大臣的職能,實際上比如今的外交部大多了。因為總理衙門不光管外交還管商務、實業等,可以說是內政外交一把抓,雖然權威上遠不如軍機領班,但是也是重要的宰相之一。


也許,就是當時,我們把美國的外交部門叫做了國務院,而外交部門則叫成了國務卿。


總而言之,美國的國務卿,其實就是外交部長,不如古代的宰相,更不如現代的總理。實際上,美國的國務卿的權利還不如美國的“總統外交事務助理”大。

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